Teacher Resources


    National Park Service Educator Resources   

    Ball State University’s Electronic Fieldtrip

     “Manzanar: Desert Diamonds Behind Barbed Wire”

    Densho, The Japanese American Legacy Project:

       Civil Liberties Curriculum

       Civil Rights and Japanese American Incarceration

       In the Shadow of My Country

    Return to the Valley Educational Project;

    Aligns with California middle and high school standards

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For Kids


PBS Fairness Fighters


Encyclopedia kids


Lieurance, Suzanne.  My Lucky Baseball: My Story in a Japanese American Internment Camp.

Mochizuki, Ken.  Baseball Saved Us.  New York: Lee & Low Books, 1993.  [Children's book; Japanese Americans and baseball in the camps.]




    Axford, Roger W. Too Long Silent: Japanese Americans Speak Out. New York: Media Publishing and Marketing, Inc.     1986.[Interviews with twelve former internees focusing on their experiences including Gordon Hirabayashi, William Hohri     and Hannah Tomiko Holmes.]

    Conrat, Maisie and Richard Conrat.  Executive Order 9066: The Internment of 110,000 Japanese Americans. Los Angeles: UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1992. [Photographic exhibit catalog of the removal and detention of Japanese Americans].

    Culley, John J. “World War II and a Western Town: The Internment of Japanese Railroad Workers of Clovis, New Mexico.” Western Historical Quarterly 13.1 (Jan. 1982):43-61.  [Historical study of a small group of Japanese American railroad workers interned after being accused of sabotage.]

    Daniels, Roger. The Politics of Prejudice. New York: Antheum, 1968. [Details the California anti-Japanese movement leading up to exclusion.]

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An Annotated bibliography for Manzanar National Historic Site. Oral History program for the National Park Service, Fullerton,1995

Armor, John and Peter Wright. Manzanar.  Commentary by Jahn Hersey. New York: Times Books, 1988 [Collection of Ansel Adams photographs of Manzanar with accompanying text by Armor and Wright and causal summary by Hersey.]

Embrey, Sue Kunitomi, Arthur A. Hansen, and Betty Kulberg Mitson.  Manzanar Martyr: An Interview with Harry Y. Ueno.  Fullerton: Oral History Program, California State University, Fullerton 1986. [Interview with a key figure in the unrest at Manzanar in late 1942]

Garrett, Jesse A., and Ronald C. Larson, ed. Camp and Community: Manzanar and the Owens Valley.  Fullerton: California State University, Fullerton, Japanese American Oral History project, 1977.  [Interviews with non-Japanese American residents of the area around Manzanar concerning their recollections of the camp].

Houston, Jeanne Wakatsuki, and James D. Houston.  Farewell to Manzanar. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1973.  [Autobiographical account of life at Manzanar through the eyes of a child.]

Stanley, Jerry.  I am An American: The True Story of Japanese Internment. New York: Crown publishers, Inc. 1994. [A story of Shiro and Mary Nomura who created the Manzanar Project at the Eastern California Museum in Independence, CA.]

Japanese Americans in Hawaii

Culley, John H. "Relocation of Japanese Americans: The Hawaiian Experience."  Air Force Law Review 24 (Spring 1984): 176-83. [Concise overview of Japanese Americans in Hawaii who were forcibly removed after the attack on Pearl Harbor.]

McAfee, Ward M.  "America' two Japanese-American policies during WorldWar II."  Southern California Quarterly 69.2 (Summer 1987): 151-64 [Comparison of the treatment of Japanese Americans inHawaii and on the mainland emphasizing the role of the military government in Hawaii.]

Okihiro, Gary Y. Cane Fires: The Anti-Japanese Movement in hawaii, 1865-1945.  Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991.  [Includes several chapters on Hawaiian Japanese Americans interned during the war.]

Saiki, Patsy Sumie.  Ganbare! An Example of Japanese Spirit.  Honolulu: Kisaku, Inc. 1982. [About Japanese Americans in Hawaii who were forcibly removed and interned during WWII.]

Sarasohn, Eileen Sunada.  The Issei: Portrait of a Pioneer: An Oral History. Palo Alto: Pacific Books, 1983.  [Compilation of oral histories includes sections on the World War experience of the Issei, first generation Japanese Americans.]

Tanaka, Richard Koichi.  America on Trial!  Beginning of Japanese in America, Evacuation and Its Effects on Future Generations of Japanese Americans. New York: Carlton Press, 1987.  [Autobiographical work recounts the history of Japanese Americans including accounts of the camp experience and the fight for redress from the author's perspective.]

Japanese Americans in the Military

Chang, Thelma.  I can Never Forget: Men of the 100th/442nd. Honolulu: Sigi Productions, Inc. 1991.  [History of the all-Nisei 100th Battalion and 442nd Regimental Combat Team.]

Crost, Lynn.  Honor by Fire: Japanese American at War in Europe and the Pacific. Novate, CA: Presidio Press, 1994.  [An in-depth look at the Japanese American 442nd Regimental Combat Team.]

Duus, Masay.  Unlikely Liberators: The Men of the 100th and 442nd.  Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1987.  [History of the all-Japanese American military units focusing on the experiences of the soldiers themselves.]

Harrington, Joseph D. Yankee Samurai: The Secret role of the Nisei in America's Pacific Victory. Detroit: Pettigrew Enterprises, Inc., 1979. [About the soldiers of the U.S. Military Intelligence Service during World War II.]

Tanaka, Chester.  Go For Broke: A history of the Japanese American 100th Battalion and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team. Richmond, CA: Go For Broke: 1982

Incarcerated Japanese Latin Americans

Corbett, P. Scott.  Quiet Passages: The Exchange of Civilians between the United States and Japan.

Gardiner, C. Harvey.  Pawns in a Triangle of Hate: The Peruvian Japanese and the United States. Seattle: University of Washington press, 1981. [Recounts the story of Peruvian Japanese who were deported from Peru and interned in the United States during World War II.]

Post-War Resettlement

Hirano, Kiyo, Enemy Alien. Translated by George Hirano and Yuri Kageyama. San Francisco: Japantown Art and Media Workshop, 1984. [Autobiography of an Issei woman recalling removal, detention and especially resettlement.]

Matsumoto, Val=erie, J. Japanese American Women during World War II." Frontiers 8:1 (1984): 6-14. [Focuses primarily on Nisei women in camp and during the resettlement period.]

Matsumoto, Valeri J. "Nisei Women and Resettlement during World War II." In Asian Women United of California, ed. Making Waves: An Anthology of Writings By and About Asian American Women. Boston: Beacon Press, 1989.

Okada, John, No-No Boy.  Rutland, VT: charles E. Tuttle, 1957.  San Francisco: Combined Asian American Resources project Inc., 1976. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1979. [Novel centering on the life and struggles of a "no-no boy" in post-war Seattle.]

Sawada, Mitziko.  "After the Camps: Seabrook Farms, New Jersey, and the Resettlement of Japanese Americans, 1944-47." Amerasia Journal 13.2 (1986-87): 117-36. [Study of resettlement community.]


Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of civilians, Personal Justice Denied: Report of the commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians. 2 Vols. Washington, DC: Government printing Office, 1982. Washington D.C.: Civil Liberties public Education Fund, 1997; Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997.  [Report of the congressional commission summarizes the Japanese American World War II experience; the second volume consists of the commission's recommendations for reparations.  This publication is now back in print and is available from the University of Washington press with new forward by Tetsudan Kashima.]

Hatamiya, Leslie. Righting a Wrong: Japanese Americans and the Passage of the civil Liberties Act of 1988. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 1993. [Overview of the political struggle to pass the Civil Liberties Act of 1988.]

Herzig, John A.  "Japanese Americans and MAGIC."  Amerasia Journal 11.2 (Fall/Winter 1984): 47-65. [Answers charges by anti-redress proponents who cite the so-called MAGIC cable dispatches from Japan as evidence of Japanese American participation in espionage activity.]

Hohri, William.  Repairing America: An Account of the Movement for Japanese American Redress. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1988.  [First-person account by the leader of the National Coalition for Japanese American Redress.]m

"The Commission on Wartime Relocations on Internment of Civilians -- Selected Testimonies from the Los Angeles and San Francisco Hearings." Amerasia Journal 8:2 (1981):53-105.

Art and Literature Inspired by the Camp Experience

Gesensway, Deborah and Minday Roseman. Beyond Words: Images from America's Concentration Camps. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University press, 1987. [Compilation of visual art created by former internees.]

Inada, Lawson.  Legends from Camp.  Minneapolis: Coffee House press, 1992. [Novel about a Japanese American family during World War II.]

Ishigo, Estell Peck.  Lone Heart Mountain. Los Angeles: Anderson, Ritchie & simon, 1972. [Sketches and text about the author's experiences at Heart Mountain; the author is a Caucasian woman who was interned with her Japanese American husband.]

Leong, Russel, ed.  The View from Within: Japanese American Art from the Internment Camps, 1942-1945.  Los Angeles: Japanese American National Museum, UCLA Wright Art Gallery; UCLA Asian American Studies Center, 1992. [Catalog of art exhibition of paintings and other works of art produced by internees while they were in camp.]

Uchida, Yoshiko.  Picture Bride. Flagstaff, AZ: Northland res, 1987. [Novel centering on an Issei picture bride which takes laces partially int he toaz concentration camp.]

Yamada, Mitsuye.  Camp Notes and Other Poems.  Berkeley: Shameless Hussy Press, 1976.



A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans & the U.S. Constitution from the Smithsonian Institute

This website includes over 800 objects and documents from the National Museum of American History’s collection, including images, music, documents, and oral narratives about the Japanese American internment camps.

The Manzanar National Historic Site

The US National Parks Service maintains the Manzanar Historic Site and Interpretive Center. The website includes basic information about the camp, photographs, and a virtual tour of the camp. It also has links to oral histories from prisoners, historical documents, and internment records.

The National Park Manzanar Historic Resource Study/Special History Study

This site represents the collection, presentation, and evaluation of historical research pertaining to the historic events that related to the historical significance of Manzanar.


"Photographs of Japanese-American Internment at Manzanar" by Ansel Adams from the Library of Congress

Ansel Adams was an American photographer best known for his black and white nature photography; however, he also took famous pictures at the Manzanar Internment Camp. The Library of Congress' American Memory collection contains Adams' photographs. The pictures depict leisure time, daily life, and portraits.


Japanese American Internment and Relocation Records from the National Archives

The US National Archives has a wealth of information about the Japanese Internment camps, including official records of families who were moved, military records, case files, and public testimonies and hearings.

The Dorothea Lange Collection

In 1942, Lange was hired to photograph Japanese Americans during their removal. 700 images were taken and turned over to the WRA. To view this collection, click on the item and view it by choosing “Digital Copies.” To view the description, choose “Scope and Content.” 


Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project

This is an extensive collection of images, oral histories of Japanese Americans incarcerated during WWII as well as educational materials.

The Japanese American Archival Collection of the University of California State University, Sacramento

Clara Breed Collection

This collection contains over 300 letters between Japanese American children and young adults, and  Miss Breed, the Children’s Librarian at the San Diego Public Library during the years of incarceration.

On Japanese Canadians from the University of Washington 


Virtual Tours

Virtual Museum of the Manzanar National Historic Site






Washington, D.C. Memorial to WWII Japanese American veterans